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Elephantgrass - Chinese Silver Grass

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deedee6

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icon Elephantgrass - Chinese Silver Grass24.08.2012. u 23:39 - pre 144 meseci
Pre par meseci sam onako usput na nekom Nemačkom radiju čuo da im je hit za sadjenje "Elephantgrass".
Naravno ne bavim se poljoprivredom pa je za mene to nešto novo i ne znam da li uspeva kod nas i sve ostalo što ide uz to...
Možda neko dobije neku ideju...
Nadam se da nisam otkrio toplu vodu sa ovom temom :)

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4220790.stm
http://www.energiepflanzen.com...informationen-auf-einen-blick/

 
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Vasastajić

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icon Re: Elephantgrass - Chinese Silver Grass25.08.2012. u 09:10 - pre 144 meseci
Ako me sećanje ne vara, istina davno je to bilo, bila se pod ovom kapom nebeskom pričala priča o avganistanskoj travi (ako ne grešim u nazivu),a interesantno da nisam ništa tako mogao da izguglam...biće da grešim...
 
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ventura

ventura
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icon Re: Elephantgrass - Chinese Silver Grass25.08.2012. u 09:23 - pre 144 meseci
Slonovska trava (Miscanthus giganteus) je bila hit, svi su pričali samo o tome,ali se ispostavilo da ona i nije nije baš nešto specijalno dobra kao što se mislilo...

Što se tiče prinosa miskantus daje tipa 15-20 tona prinosa po hektaru u realnim uslovima, što nije nešto spektakularno mnogo, i za biogas nije nešto povoljan jer ima mnogo drvenaste mase u sebi, plus ta količina drvenaste mase toliko uništava headere od kombajna da se ni ne isplati silirati time...

Sa druge strane miskantus se seje jednom, uspostavljanje inicijalnog zasada preko rizoma je vrlo skupo, reda veličine 3-8 hiljada evra/ha, i narednih 20 godina osim skidanja moraš da baciš malo đubriva, i eventualno na proleće da pretanjiraš da razbiješ pokoricu i to je to...

Za ostale primene tipa biomasa/etanol je solidna biljka, i to samo ako cena zemljišta nije bitan faktor u računici pošto miskantus zahteva daleko veću površinu od nekih drugih kultura, i dosta visoko inicijalno ulaganje.
 
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superbaka

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icon Re: Elephantgrass - Chinese Silver Grass25.08.2012. u 12:07 - pre 144 meseci
Citat:
Vasastajić: Ako me sećanje ne vara, istina davno je to bilo, bila se pod ovom kapom nebeskom pričala priča o avganistanskoj travi (ako ne grešim u nazivu),a interesantno da nisam ništa tako mogao da izguglam...biće da grešim...


sudanska trava...

inace, sve je ovo davno poznato nego se s vremena na vreme neki uvoznik semena navuce na neku pricu, pokusa da je progura kroz medije, i to na tome ostane... mada, bilo je i slucajeva da su ljudi popucali celokupnu svoju ustedevinu na te izlete, npr, sa puzevima... hint
 
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deki-bleki

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icon Re: Elephantgrass - Chinese Silver Grass05.10.2012. u 21:59 - pre 142 meseci
kad god se nesto seje ili sadi pozeljno je prvo izvrsiti analizu zemljista.
tek potom izracunati rashode i moguce prihode (minimalne,optimalne i maximalne) uz resen plasman proizvoda.
ova trava je najpodesnija za "slonove" ko sto joj i ime kaze,bez obzira sto raste visoko.
Family: Poaceae (alt. Gramineae) subfamily: Panicoideae tribe: Paniceae. TRAVE
imena su mu
elephant grass, merker grass, napier grass , (English); napier, herbe éléphant, fausse canne át; sucre (French); Elefantengras (German); capim-elefante (Portuguese); pasto elefante (Spanish); gigante (Costa Rica); mfufu (Africa); co voi (Vietnam); 'erepani (Cook Islands); acfucsracsracsr (Kosrae); bokso (Palau); puk-soh (Pohnpei); vao povi (Samoa).srpski slonovska trava ili kineska srebrna trava.
Kenija,Tanzanija ,Uganda ,i ostale africke zemlje je imaju prirodnu...
Morphological description
Robust perennial forming large, bamboo-like clumps, with culms usually 2-3.5 m high (up to 7.5 m) and branched towards the top; stems to 3 cm diameter near the base. Leaf blades glabrous or hairy, 30-120 cm long and 1-5 cm wide; leaf-sheaths glabrous or with stiff hairs. Spreads by short rhizomes, rooting from lower nodes or falling stems rooting at nodes creating a stolon. Inflorescence a bristly false spike 10-30 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide (excluding bristles) dense, usually yellow-brown in colour, more rarely greenish or purplish. Extensive root system penetrating to 4.5 m. About 3 million fertile spikelets or 'seeds'/kg.
Uses/applications
Mostly planted for cut and carry systems, and not for long-term grazed pastures. Also used for hedgerows and living fences, although roots compete with adjacent crop. Young growth makes good hay, which can be fed as hay or pellets. Coarse stems in older growth make it unsuitable for hay. Makes good silage, although inferior to maize and sorghum. Old growth becomes too coarse to be of value for anything other than soil conservation. Bana grass is commonly used as a windbreak in horticultural crops and orchards.
Ecology
Soil requirements
Grows on a wide range of soil types provided fertility is adequate. Grows best in deep, well-drained friable loams with a pH of 4.5-8.2 (mean 6.2). No readily available data on tolerance of salinity or high levels of Al and Mn.

Moisture
Top

In the wild, normally only found in areas with rainfall >1,000 mm, and on river banks in areas of lower rainfall. Although extremely drought tolerant by virtue of deep root system, needs good moisture for production. Does not tolerate prolonged flooding or waterlogging .

Temperature
Produces best growth between 25 and 40°C, and little growth below about 15°C, with growth ceasing at 10°C. Tops killed by frost, but re-grows with onset of warm, moist conditions. Grows from sea level to 2,000 m altitude.

Light
Moderate shade tolerance, about equivalent to that of Setaria sphacelata and Brachiaria decumbens .

Reproductive development
An obligate quantitative short-day plant, with a critical photoperiod of 12-13 hours, flowering under a relatively wide range of photoperiods e.g. flowers January to June in South Africa. There is some variation among ecotypes in flowering time. Seed set is usually poor, possibly due to low pollen viability .

Defoliation
Normally cut at 15 cm above ground, although difficult to maintain constant cutting height. Cattle eat mostly leaf. Proportion of leaf decreases, and stem increases, with age and height. Should not be allowed to grow >1.5 m before cutting, to ensure cut material is mostly leaf.

Fire
Top

Recovers well following fire, and can dominate fire-adapted savannah communities. Seldom dry enough to burn under normal circumstances.

Agronomy
Guidelines for the establishment and management of sown pastures.

Establishment
Can be established from seed (no post-harvest dormancy), although almost invariably planted from setts or cuttings (pieces of cane) or splits (rooted pieces of clump). Setts are taken from the basal 2/3 of moderately mature stems and should contain at least 3 nodes. These are pushed into the soil at 45º, basal end down, with 2 nodes buried. Cuttings can also be planted horizontally into a furrow, to a depth of 5-10 cm. Normally planted in rows 0.5-2 m apart, and 0.3-1 m apart within rows. Close spacing is required for soil conservation contour hedgerows and for high rainfall environments. More open spacing is used in drier environments.

Fertiliser
Should be planted into fertile soil. Once established, requires, 150-300 kg/ha/yr N, together with other nutrients as indicated by soil tests. Responses at much higher levels of applied N have been obtained. Yields decline rapidly if fertility is not maintained.

Compatibility (with other species)
Competes vigorously with other species with adequate fertility and moisture. Weeds invade if fertiliser regime relaxed.

Companion species
Top

Grasses: Not sown with other grasses.
Legumes: Normally not sown with legumes, but will grow with vigorous twining legumes such as Pueraria phaseoloides , Neonotonia wightii and Centrosema molle (pubescens), or with the shrub/tree legume , Leucaena leucocephala .

Pests and diseases
Many fungal diseases reported, the most common being leaf spots caused by Helminthosporium sacchari (syn. Bipolaris sacchari), Helminthosporium ocellum and Pyricularia grisea. Some varieties are resistant. Also attacked by the bacterium, Pectobacterium carotovorum, other diseases including Pseudo- Fiji Disease, chlorotic streak, a disease of sugarcane, and leaf mottle virus, and by nematodes (Aphelenchus avenae, Meloidogyne incognita acrita, M. javanica and Pratylenchus brachyurus).
Work in Florida is investigating the use of the pathogenic fungi, Drechslera and. Exserohilum, to control P. purpureum .

Ability to spread
Spreads by seed, usually into disturbed areas, but mostly by short rhizomes and tall stems that fall and root at the nodes.

Weed potential
Listed as an invasive species in the Pacific Islands and USA (Florida). Can be controlled by regular mowing or herbicide.

Feeding value
Nutritive value
Top

Varies greatly with age of regrowth (leaf:stem ratio), and fertility, particularly nitrogen e.g. 6 week regrowth 10% CP, 10 week regrowth 7.6% CP. Can give up to 2-fold difference in CP level. CP and IVDMD levels of leaf range from 9.5-19.7%, and 68-74% respectively.

Palatability/acceptability
Extremely palatable to all classes of stock when provided young and leafy.

Toxicity
Can cause nitrate poisoning in cattle if sole component of diet. Oxalate levels of 2.5-3.1% of DM, but no problems recorded.

Production potential
Dry matter
Yields depend on fertility, moisture, temperature and management. DM yields of 10-30 t/ha/yr common, (and up to 85 t/ha/yr) if well fertilised; 2-10 t/ha/yr if unfertilised. More frequent cuts (up to 45 days) give less dry matter, but better leaf production than infrequent cuts.

Animal production
Top

As with dry matter, animal production from P. purpureum depends on growing conditions for the grass. Liveweight gains of 1 kg/hd/day during the growing season and 480 kg/ha/yr, and milk yields of >11 kg/day (4% fat) are achievable. Capable of carrying 2-7 beasts/ha in a grazed system.

Genetics/breeding
P. purpureum : cross pollinating, also apomictic, 2n = 27, 4x = 28, 8x = 56
P. purpureum x P. glaucum hybrids: 2n = 20, 21.

Seed production
Seed rarely harvested.

Herbicide effects
Atrazine at 6 kg /ha can be used for establishment. Controlled with glyphosate.

Strengths
High dry matter yields.
Very palatable, high quality forage .
Drought tolerant.
Frost susceptible.
Limitations
Top

Needs high fertility.
Matures rapidly, becoming stemmy.
Usually needs to be planted vegetatively.
Other comments


Selected references
Bogdan, A.V. (1977) Tropical Pasture and Fodder Plants. (Longman: London and New York).
't Mannetje, L.(1992) Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. In: 't Mannetje, L. and Jones, R.M. (eds) Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 4. Forages. pp. 191-192. (Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen, the Netherlands).

itd....samo treba citati i razumeti sta se cita....
 
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elitemadzone.org :: Poljoprivreda :: Elephantgrass - Chinese Silver Grass

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